Course Overview

Methodology (Marks: 20)
1. The Nature of Science: Nature and scope of science, Science, ideology and Society, Structure of Science (a) Substantive structure - Empirical knowledge, Theoretical Knowledge - (Facts, Concepts, hypothesis, theory, Principle Law), (b)Syntactic Structure of Science - Scientific inquiry, Processes of Science, Attitudes of inquiry

2. The History and Development of Science: A brief introduction to oriental and western science, Contribution of the following Scientists in the Development of Science: Aryabhatta, BhaskaraCharya, Aristotle, Copernicus, Newton, Einstein, C.V.Raman, Various organizations working for the development of science in India
3. Aims and Values of teaching Physical Sciences: Aims of teaching Physical Sciences, Values of teaching Physical Science, Correlation of Physics and Chemistry with other subjects
4. Objectives of teaching Physical Sciences: Meaning and importance of objectives,Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational objectives, Specific / Behavioral objectives /(Instructional objectives), Critique on Bloom's Taxonomy
5. Approaches and Methods of teaching Physical Sciences: Inductive and Deductive Approaches, Micro Teaching, Team Teaching, Lecture Method, Lecture cum Demonstration Method, Historical Method, Heuristic Method, Project Method, Laboratory method, Problem Solving Method, Scientific Method, Multimedia Approach in Teaching Learning process, Programmed Learning, CAI and CAL
6. Planning for effective instruction in Science: Year Plan, Unit Plan, Lesson Plan, Learning experience, characteristics, classification, source and relevance.
7. Teaching Learning Material (TLM): Characteristics and Importance of TLM, Classification and Types of TLM, Hardware and Software in TLM, TLM-Principles to be followed, Edgar Dale's cone of learning experience.
8. Science laboratories: Importance of Practical work in science, Planning of Science laboratories, Procurement, care and maintenance of laboratory equipment, Registers,
Management of safety and science kits, Development of improvised Apparatus.
9. Physical Science Curriculum: Principles of Curriculum Construction, Defects in the existing school science curriculum, Qualities of a good Science Text Book.
10.Non-formal Science Education: Science Clubs, Science Fairs - purposes, levels, organization, advantages, Science Library, Role of NGOs and State in popularizing Science
11.Evaluation: Concept and Process of Evaluation, Tools of Evaluation, Preparation of Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT), Analysis and interpretation of Scores.


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